Bitcoin’s energy usage

This is excerpted from this early 2018 Guardian article: Bitcoin’s energy usage is huge – we can’t afford to ignore it: www.theguardian.com.

“Bitcoin’s electricity usage is enormous. In November [2017], the power consumed by the entire bitcoin network was estimated to be higher than that of the Republic of Ireland. Since then, its demands have only grown. It’s now on pace to use just over 42TWh of electricity in a year, placing it ahead of New Zealand and Hungary and just behind Peru, according to estimates from Digiconomist. That’s commensurate with CO2 emissions of 20 megatonnes – or roughly 1m transatlantic flights.

In simplified terms, bitcoin mining is a competition to waste the most electricity possible by doing pointless arithmetic quintillions of times a second. The more electricity you burn, and the faster your computer, the higher your chance of winning the competition. The prize? 12.5 bitcoin – still worth over $100,000 – plus all the transaction fees paid in the past 10 minutes, which according analysts’ estimates is another $2,500 or so.”

Also see: “Here’s the Short History of Bitcoin – As Told Through the Five Different Groups Who Bought It“: www.alternet.org.

IEEE Blockchain Initiative Helps to Advance the Decentralized Ledger

This item is excerpted from this IEEE Institute article: theinstitute.ieee.org.

Also see: Boning Up on Blockchain Technology: theinstitute.ieee.org.

Blockchain has become a buzzword in the past couple of years, but many people still don’t know what the technology can do. Best known as the foundation of cryptocurrency transactions, the decentralized ledger has the potential to replace existing databases, providing more transparency and security. It could be adopted by nearly every industry including energy, finance, health care, manufacturing, real estate, and transportation.

To help advance the technology, IEEE launched its Blockchain Initiative in January [2018], and dozens of activities are underway. They include standards development and e-learning courses, as well as conferences. Groups have been formed worldwide to focus on blockchain applications based on local needs.

The initiative’s efforts are in collaboration with the IEEE Computer Society, the IEEE Reliability Society, and the IEEE Standards Association. Nearly 200 volunteers are involved.

“This is a grassroots effort that gives technical communities the ability to advance blockchain, and inform one another about aspects of the technology they haven’t thought about,” says Tim Kostyk, who is overseeing the initiative. He is the senior program director of IEEE Future Directions, the organization’s R&D arm. “The more people who are involved, the more the technology benefits.”

BEYOND THE HYPE

One of the biggest advantages of a blockchain system over current databases, Kostyk says, is that it provides provenance: proof of ownership. “Blockchain allows for traceability in which users can see who had their hands on a product or service and at what point in time,” he says.

A blockchain database records every transaction and makes that record visible to all participants. Moreover, each transaction is blocked by the transaction that comes after it, making it nearly impossible to delete or edit previous records.

The health care industry could benefit from adopting the technology for medical records to help ensure a medical professional was not negligent. Doctors would record detailed information about medications prescribed, vaccines given, exams conducted, and surgeries performed. That information would be locked in a permanent ledger, not only providing the ability for patient records to be accessed by different medical providers but also making it nearly impossible for information to be deleted or edited—protecting against false malpractice allegations. IEEE is holding workshops and developing standards to advance blockchain technology for medical records.”

Shockley’s Historic Semiconductor Laboratory Honored With Two IEEE Milestones

The info below is excerpted from this IEEE Institute article: theinstitute.ieee.org.

“For tech history buffs, 391 San Antonio Road in Mountain View, Calif., is a well-known address. The site was the home of Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, which played a pivotal role in launching Silicon Valley’s electronics industry. IEEE Fellow William B. Shockley, a Nobel Prize–winning physicist, opened the research lab in 1956.

Many of the chip industry’s founding fathers were researchers there. One was IEEE Life Fellow Gordon Moore, cofounder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel. Moore left Shockley’s lab in 1957 to cofound Fairchild, also in Mountain View, but it was at Shockley where he learned how to produce transistors for commercial sale.

It’s estimated that more than 400 electronics firms can trace their roots to the lab.”

The Security of Cellular Connections

This is excerpted from a New York Times article.

“That free Wi-Fi network may not be so free if it is unsecured and someone hijacks your data. Your phone’s cellular data connection offers more protection.

If you are unfamiliar with the available wireless network nearby and want to be as safe as possible, stick with the LTE data connection. If your data plan is limited or you need more speed than what the cellular network offers, use a virtual private network like F-Secure’s Freedome VPN or Private Internet Access to encrypt your Wi-Fi connection.”

How waterproof is your smartphone or other device?

This is excerpted from a New York Times article.

“For its recent Galaxy devices, Samsung touts “an international standard rating of IP68” and says the Galaxy S7 and later models are “deemed fit enough to withstand dust, dirt and sand, and are resistant to submersion up to a maximum depth of 1.5 meters underwater for up to 30 minutes” — which should protect it from the dreaded Toilet Drop.

As for those numbers, the first digit in the rating refers to the level of protection from solid substances and is measured on scale of 0 (no protection) to 6, with a 6 meaning no dust enters the device for two to eight hours of exposure. The second number refers to water and is measured on a scale of 0 to 9. A rating of 8 designates protection against water immersion under pressure for long periods, and a 9 rating means the object can also hold up against high-pressure water jets.”